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CHAPTER VIII
FREIGHT

FREIGHT is the consideration payable to the carrier for
the safe carriage and delivery of goods in a merchantable
condition.

Charter-party freight and bill of lading freight differ in
many respects, and these are discussed separately in order
to prevent confusion.

Bill of lading freight is due on safe carriage and delivery
of the goods. Many companies, however, demand freight in
exchange for bills of lading, or freight to be paid within
seven days of steamer's sailing. This is adopted in order to
make collection easy and assured.

Freight on bill of lading shipments is calculated in three
ways, weight of cargo, measurement of cargo, or, when the
value is high, at ad valorem freight, the latter being charge-
able at so much per cent on the declared value of the goods.

The carrier has the right of deciding whether the goods
shall be carried at weight or measurement, whichever pro-
duces the highest rate of freight. Whilst appearing at first
glance to be to the advantage of the carrier, this is reason-
ably decided on the basis that heavy cargo will sink a
vessel to her load line, long before the space is fully occupied,
and light cargo will fill the space of the steamer's holds and
yet not bring the steamer down to her mark. Relationship
of weight to measurement of cargo is dealt with under
cargoes.

Basis of freight is calculated on 40 cubic feet to a ton, or
20 cwts. to a ton. This has its origin in the fact that ia olden
times four hogsheads of wine constituted a "tun," and
occupied approximately 50 cubic feet. This "tun" of 50
cubic feet has by usage and custom gradually altered into
the ton of 40 cubic feet, which is now the basis for freight
calculations.

It may be considered that light cargoes, fine goods,

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